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Who discovered NiTinol alloy, and how?

NiTinol, sometimes called NiTi in short is an alloy with composition of about 55% Ni and 45% Ti(wt.%) . The discovery of it is a contingent event.
In the year of 1963, Buehler of the U.S Department of Defense found that the equi-atomic Nickel &Titanium alloy in a "deformed" shape returned its original shape by touching a burning cigarette. This physical performance was named as "Shape Memory", and this alloy was so called NiTiNOL(Nickel Titanium Navy Ordnance Laboratory) for the name of Buehler's lab.

Is NiTi safe for me?

For most people, NiTi is an ideal Biomaterial. After about 30 years wide application in medical field, it has been already fully demonstrated to be safe for outside-body application or as an implant material.

Warning: Nickel sensitive patients may be sensitive patient can be sensitive with NiTi Arch Wire as it consists of Nickel and Titanium. So before you decide to have an orthodontic operation, get advice from your physician.

What is the difference between Super Elastic NiTi Arch Wire and Thermally Activated NiTi Arch Wire?

Super Elastic NiTi Arch Wire or called Austenitic NiTi Arch Wire, with excellent elasticity and low stiffness, the wire offer gentle corrective force which is continuous and stable from the begining to the end of the orthodontic operation.

Thermally Activated NiTi Arch Wire or called Shape Memory NiTi Arch Wire, Martensitic NiTi Arch Wire. Paralleled with Super Elastic NiTi Arch Wire, it is soft and can be deformed at room temperature(around 25 ) or a lower temperature, when the temperature up to a certain temperature(around 32 ) or higher, the thermally activated wire will return its original shape, thus take on its characteristic of shape memory and super elastic. As a result of this characteristic, the wire can be easily shaped and applied into brackets at room temperature or lower temperature, then after activated by body temperature, it start to provide recovery force.

What is the difference between NiTi wire and Smart-TMATM Wire?

TMA means Titanium Molybdenum Alloy, so it does not contain Nickel and won't cause Nickel allergy. From the point of view of physical utility, the TMA wire can offer tremendous time efficiency and therapeutic effect. As showed in the following graph, the TMA wire provides stronger force than NiTi wire but more elastic than SS wire. On the other hand, the TMA wire is bendable, so the orthodontist can make customized shape by it, and making loops, hooks on it to meet patient's requirement.

Stress-Strain curves of Smart NiTiSmart-TMATM and Stainless Steel orthodontic wires
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